Learning Objectives

The arts of the Italian Renaissance was significant throughout Europe for centuries.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe Florence school of painting came to be the dominant style during the Renaissance. Renaissance artworks depicted more secular subject matter than previous artistic movements.Michelangelo, da Vinci, and Rafael are among the best known artist of the High Renaissance.The High Renaissance was adhered to by the Mannerist movement, known for elongated figures.Key Termsfresco: A kind of wall surface painting in which color pigments are combined with water and applied to wet plaster. As the plaster and also pigments dry, castle fuse together and also the painting becomes a component of the wall surface itself.Mannerism: A layout of art occurred at the finish of the High Renaissance, identified by the deliberate distortion and also exaggeration that perspective, especially the elongation that figures.

The Renaissance began during the 14th century and also remained the conquer style in Italy, and also in much of Europe, till the 16th century. The hatchet “renaissance” was occurred during the 19th century in order to explain this duration of time and also its accompanying creative style. However, world who to be living throughout the Renaissance did view themselves as different from their medieval predecessors. With a selection of messages that survive, we understand that civilization living throughout the Renaissance experienced themselves as various largely due to the fact that they were deliberately trying to imitate the Ancients in art and architecture.

Florence and also the Renaissance

When friend hear the term “Renaissance” and photo a style of art, girlfriend are probably picturing the Renaissance style that was developed in Florence, which came to be the dominate style that art throughout the Renaissance. Throughout the middle Ages and also the Renaissance, Italy was split into a number of different city states. Every city state had actually its own government, culture, economy, and artistic style. Over there were many different formats of art and architecture that were occurred in Italy during the Renaissance. Siena, which was a political allied of France, for example, maintained a Gothic element to its arts for much of the Renaissance.

Certain problems aided the advancement of the Renaissance format in Florence throughout this time period. In the 15th century, Florence ended up being a significant mercantile center. The production of towel drove your economy and also a seller class emerged. Humanism, i beg your pardon had occurred during the 14th century, remained critical intellectual activity that impacted art manufacturing as well.

Early Renaissance

During the early Renaissance, artists began to reject the oriental style of spiritual painting and strove to produce realism in their depiction the the human type and space. This aim toward realism started with Cimabue and Giotto, and also reached its top in the art of the “Perfect” artists, such as Andrea Mantegna and Paolo Uccello, who developed works that employed one allude perspective and played v perspective for your educated, art knowledgeable viewer.

During the early on Renaissance we likewise see important advances in subject matter, in addition to style. While faith was vital element in the day-to-day life of world living during the Renaissance, and remained a driving element behind imaginative production, we also see a brand-new avenue open to panting—mythological topic matter. Numerous scholars suggest to Botticelli’s Birth of Venus together the very an initial panel painting of a supernatural scene. If the heritage itself likely developed from cassone painting, which typically featured scene from mythology and also romantic texts, the breakthrough of supernatural panel paint would open a civilization for artistic patronage, production, and also themes.

Birth of Venus: Botticelli’s bear of Venus was among the most essential works that the beforehand Renaissance.

High Renaissance

The duration known together the High Renaissance to represent the culmination that the objectives of the beforehand Renaissance, specific the realistic representation of figures in an are rendered v credible motion and also in an as necessary decorous style. The most famous artists indigenous this phase are Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, and Michelangelo. Your paintings and frescoes are among the most widely recognized works of arts in the world. Da Vinci’s Last Supper, Raphael’s The college of Athens and Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel Ceiling paints are the masterpieces the this duration and embody the aspects of the High Renaissance.

Marriage the the Virgin, by Raphael: The painting depicts a marriage ceremony between Mary and Joseph.


High Renaissance painting progressed into Mannerism in Florence. Mannerist artists, who consciously rebelled against the ethics of High Renaissance, tended to represent elongated figures in illogical spaces. Contemporary scholarship has recognized the capacity of Mannerist arts to convey strong, frequently religious, emotion wherein the High Renaissance failure to carry out so. Some of the key artists that this period are Pontormo, Bronzino, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino and Raphael’s pupil, Giulio Romano.

Art and Patronage

The Medici household used their vast fortune to regulate the Florentine political system and also sponsor a series of imaginative accomplishments.

Learning Objectives

Discuss the relationship between art, patronage, and politics during the Renaissance

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAlthough the Renaissance was underway before the Medici family came to power in Florence, their patronage and also political support of the arts aided catalyze the Renaissance right into a fully fledged social movement.The Medici wealth and influence initially acquired from the textile profession guided by the guild of the Arte della Lana; with financial superiority, the Medici dominated their city’s government.Medici patronage to be responsible because that the bulk of Florentine art throughout their reign, as artists usually only made their works when they obtained commissions in advance.Although no one of the Medici themselves were scientists, the family is famed to have actually been the patrons the the famous Galileo Galilei, who tutored multiple generations of Medici children.Key TermsLorenzo de’ Medici: one Italian statesman and also de facto leader of the Florentine Republic, that was among the most an effective and enthusiasm patrons the the Renaissance.patronage: The support, encouragement, privilege, or financial assist that an company or individual bestows ~ above another, especially in the arts.


It has actually long been a issue of conflict why the Renaissance started in Florence, and also not elsewhere in Italy. Scholars have detailed several features distinct to Florentine cultural life that may have caused such a social movement. Numerous have emphasized the duty played by the Medici, a banking family and also later ducal judgment house, in patronizing and also stimulating the arts. Lorenzo de’ Medici (1449–1492) was the catalyst for an huge amount of arts patronage, encouraging his countrymen come commission works from the leading artists of Florence, consisting of Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and also Michelangelo Buonarroti. Works by Neri di Bicci, Botticelli, da Vinci, and Filippino Lippi had actually been commissioned additionally by the convent di mountain Donato agli Scopeti of the Augustinians bespeak in Florence.

The Medici residence Patronage

The residence of Medici to be an Italian banking family, politics dynasty, and also later royal house that very first began to gather prestige under Cosimo de’ Medici in the Republic the Florence during the first half of the 15th century. Their wealth and influence initially obtained from the textile profession guided by the guild the the Arte della Lana. Like various other signore families, they dominated their city’s government, they were able to carry Florence under your family’s power, and also they created an environment where art and Humanism could flourish. They, in addition to other households of Italy, such together the Visconti and Sforza the Milan, the Este that Ferrara, and the Gonzaga the Mantua, fostered and inspired the bear of the Italian Renaissance.

The biggest success of the Medici were in the sponsorship that art and architecture, largely early and High Renaissance art and architecture. The Medici were responsible because that the bulk of Florentine art throughout their reign. Your money was significant because throughout this period, artists generally only made your works once they received commissions in advance. Giovanni di Bicci de’ Medici, the first patron the the art in the family, aided Masaccio and also commissioned Brunelleschi for the repair of the Basilica of mountain Lorenzo, Florence, in 1419. Cosimo the Elder’s notable creative associates were Donatello and Fra Angelico. The most far-ranging addition come the list over the years was Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), who created work for a variety of Medici, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was stated to be extremely fond that the young Michelangelo, inviting the to examine the family collection of antique sculpture. Lorenzo also served as patron of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) for seven years. Indeed, Lorenzo was an artist in his very own right, and also an writer of poetry and song; his assistance of the arts and letters is viewed as a high allude in Medici patronage.


The Medici House: Medici family members members inserted allegorically in the entourage the a king native the three Wise males in the Tuscan landscape in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.

In architecture, the Medici are responsible for part notable attributes of Florence, including the Uffizi Gallery, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, the Medici Chapel, and also the Palazzo Medici. Later, in Rome, the Medici Popes ongoing in the household tradition by patronizing artists in Rome. Pope Leo X would certainly chiefly commission functions from Raphael. Pope Clement VII i was delegated Michelangelo to paint the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel just prior to the pontiff’s death in 1534. Eleanor that Toledo, princess of Spain and wife the Cosimo i the Great, purchase the Pitti royal residence from Buonaccorso Pitti in 1550. Cosimo in turn patronized Vasari, who put up the Uffizi collection in 1560 and founded the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno (“Academy that the art of Drawing”) in 1563. Marie de’ Medici, widow that Henry IV of France and also mother the Louis XIII, is the topic of a i was delegated cycle that paintings recognized as the Marie de’ Medici cycle, painted because that the Luxembourg royal residence by court painter Peter Paul Rubens in 1622–1623.

Although no one of the Medici themselves to be scientists, the household is renowned to have actually been the patrons that the renowned Galileo Galilei, that tutored many generations of Medici children and also was critical figurehead for his patron’s pursuit for power. Galileo’s patronage was eventually abandoned by Ferdinando II once the Inquisition accused Galileo the heresy. However, the Medici family members did bought the scientist a safe haven for plenty of years. Galileo called the 4 largest moons of Jupiter after 4 Medici children he tutored, return the surname Galileo supplied are no the names currently used.

Leonardo da Vinci

While Leonardo da Vinci is admired as a scientist, an academic, and an inventor, that is most famed for his achievements as the painter of numerous Renaissance masterpieces.

Learning Objectives

Describe the works of Leonardo da Vinci that demonstrate his many innovative methods as an artist

Key Takeaways

Key PointsAmong the features that make da Vinci’s work distinctive are the innovative methods that he supplied in laying top top the paint, his detailed knowledge that anatomy, his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition, and his usage of sfumato.Among the most famous works created by da Vinci is the small portrait title the Mona Lisa, known for the elusive smile on the woman’s face, brought around by the truth that da Vinci subtly shadowed the corners that the mouth and eyes so the the specific nature of the smile cannot it is in determined.Despite his famous paintings, da Vinci was no a prolific painter; he was a prolific draftsman, keeping journals full of little sketches and detailed illustrations recording all manner of things that interested him.Key Termssfumato: In painting, the applications of ethereal layers that translucent paint so the there is no visible shift between colors, tones, and also often objects.

While Leonardo da Vinci is significantly admired as a scientist, an academic, and an inventor, that is most famous for his achievements as the artist of number of Renaissance masterpieces. His paintings were groundbreaking because that a range of reasons and his works have been imitated through students and discussed at an excellent length by connoisseurs and also critics.

Among the qualities that make da Vinci’s work distinct are the innovative methods that he used in laying on the paint, his thorough knowledge that anatomy, his use of the human kind in figurative composition, and his usage of sfumato. Every one of these characteristics are current in his most commemorated works, the Mona Lisa, The critical Supper, and also the Virgin the the Rocks.


The Virgin that the Rocks, Leonardo da Vinci, 1483–1486: This paint shows the Madonna and Child Jesus with the infant John the Baptist and one angel, in a rocky setting.

The last Supper

Da Vinci’s most celebrated painting the the 1490s is The critical Supper, which to be painted because that the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie in Milan. The paint depicts the critical meal common by Jesus and also the 12 Apostles wherein he announces that among the them will betray him. Once finished, the paint was acclaimed as a masterpiece that design. This job-related demonstrates something the da Vinci did really well: taking a very traditional topic matter, such together the critical Supper, and totally re-inventing it.

Prior come this moment in arts history, every depiction of the last Supper complied with the same visual tradition: Jesus and also the Apostles seated at a table. Judas is placed on the opposite next of the table of anyone else and is effortlessly established by the viewer. As soon as da Vinci painted The critical Supper he put Judas top top the very same side the the table as Christ and the Apostles, who are shown reacting come Jesus together he announces that one of them will betray him. Lock are shown as alarmed, upset, and also trying to recognize who will certainly commit the act. The viewer likewise has to recognize which number is Judas, who will betray Christ. By illustrating the step in this manner, da Vinci has infused psychology into the work.

Unfortunately, this masterpiece that the Renaissance began to deteriorate instantly after da Vinci perfect painting, due largely to the painting an approach that he had chosen. Rather of utilizing the an approach of fresco, da Vinci had actually used tempera end a ground that was mostly gesso in an attempt to lug the subtle effects of oil paint to fresco. His new technique was no successful, and resulted in a surface that was subject to mold and flaking.

The last Supper: Leonardo da Vinci’s last Supper, although much deteriorated, demonstrates the painter’s mastery of the human form in figurative composition.

Mona Lisa

Among the works developed by da Vinci in the 16th century is the little portrait well-known as the Mona Lisa, or La Gioconda, “the laughing one.” In the current era it is maybe the most famous painting in the world. Its call rests, in particular, top top the elusive laugh on the woman’s face—its mysterious quality brought around perhaps through the truth that the artist has subtly shadowed the corners of the mouth and eyes so the the exact nature of the smile cannot be determined.

The shadowy top quality for i beg your pardon the work is renowned came to be called sfumato, the applications of ethereal layers the translucent repaint so that there is no visible transition between colors, tones, and often objects. Other qualities found in this work-related are the unadorned dress, in i beg your pardon the eyes and also hands have actually no vain from various other details; the dramatic see background, in which the world seems to be in a state that flux; the subdued coloring; and also the exceptionally smooth nature the the painterly technique, employing oils, but used much favor tempera and blended top top the surface ar so the the brushstrokes room indistinguishable. And again, da Vinci is innovating ~ above a form of paint here. Portraits were an extremely common in the Renaissance. However, portraits of ladies were constantly in profile, which was seen as proper and also modest. Here, da Vinci existing a portrait the a woman that not only encounters the viewer yet follows them v her eyes.

Mona Lisa: In the Mona Lisa, da Vinci incorporates his sfumato technique to produce a shadowy quality.

Virgin and also Child with St. Anne

In the paint Virgin and also Child through St. Anne, da Vinci’s ingredient again choose up the template of numbers in a landscape. What provides this paint unusual is the there room two obliquely collection figures superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of she mother, St. Anne. She leans forward to restrain the Christ son as the plays about with a lamb, the authorize of his own brewing sacrifice. This painting influenced plenty of contemporaries, consisting of Michelangelo, Raphael, and also Andrea del Sarto. The patterns in its composition were adopted in particular by the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Veronese.

Virgin and Child through Saint Anne: Virgin and Child with St. Ann (c. 1510) through Leonardo da Vinci, Louvre Museum.


Michelangelo to be a 16th century Florentine artist renowned for his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and architectural design.

Learning Objectives

Discuss Michelangelo’s success in sculpture, painting, and architecture

Key Takeaways

Key PointsMichelangelo produced his colossal marble statue, the David, out of a solitary block of marble, which developed his importance as a sculptor the extraordinary technical skill and strength that symbolic imagination.In painting, Michelangelo is renowned because that the ceiling and The critical Judgement of the Sistine Chapel, where he depicted a complicated scheme representing Creation, the Downfall that Man, the Salvation that Man, and the ancestry of Christ.Michelangelo’s chief contribution to Saint Peter’s Basilica was the usage of a Greek Cross type and an outside masonry of huge proportions, v every edge filled in by a stairwell or little vestry. The impact is a continuous wall-surface that appears fractured or folded at different angles.Key Termscontrapposto: The standing position of a human number where many of the load is inserted on one foot, and the various other leg is relaxed. The impact of contrapposto in art makes figures look very naturalistic.Sistine Chapel: The best-known chapel in the Apostolic Palace.

Michelangelo to be a 16th century Florentine artist renowned because that his masterpieces in sculpture, painting, and also architectural design. His most famed works space the David, the Last Judgment, and also the Basilica that Saint Peter’s in the Vatican.

Sculpture: David

In 1504, Michelangelo was commissioned to produce a colossal marble statue illustrating David as a prize of Florentine freedom. The subsequent masterpiece, David, developed the artist’s prominence as a sculptor that extraordinary technical skill and also strength the symbolic imagination. David was produced out that a single marble block, and also stands larger than life, together it was initially intended to adorn the Florence Cathedral. The occupational differs from previous depictions in the the Biblical hero is not depicted with the head the the slain Goliath, together he is in Donatello’s and also Verrocchio’s statues; both had actually represented the hero was standing victorious end the head that Goliath. No earlier Florentine artist had omitted the huge altogether. Instead of appearing victorious end a foe, David’s confront looks tense and also ready for combat. The tendons in his neck stand the end tautly, his brow is furrowed, and also his eye seem to emphasis intently on miscellaneous in the distance. Veins bulge out of his lowered ideal hand, but his body is in a relaxed contrapposto pose, and also he dead his sling casually thrown end his left shoulder. In the Renaissance, contrapposto poses were thought of together a distinctive feature of neck sculpture.

The David by Michelangelo, 1504: Michelangelo’s David was standing in contrapposto pose.

The sculpture to be intended come be inserted on the exterior that the Duomo, and has come to be one that the most well-known works that Renaissance sculpture.

Painting: The last Judgement

In painting, Michelangelo is renowned because that his work-related in the Sistine Chapel. He was originally commissioned to paint tromp-l’oeil coffers after ~ the original ceiling developed a crack. Michelangelo lobbied because that a different and also more complex scheme, representing Creation, the Downfall of Man, the Promise of Salvation with the prophets, and also the family tree of Christ. The work-related is component of a larger scheme the decoration in ~ the chapel that represents lot of the doctrine of the Catholic Church.

The composition eventually included over 300 figures, and also had at its facility nine illustration from the book of Genesis, separated into 3 groups: God’s development of the Earth, God’s development of Humankind, and also their autumn from God’s grace, and also lastly, the state of humankind as stood for by Noah and also his family. Twelve men and also women who prophesied the coming of the Jesus are painted top top the pendentives sustaining the ceiling. Amongst the most well known paintings ~ above the ceiling room The development of Adam, Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, the an excellent Flood, the Prophet Isaiah and also the Cumaean Sibyl. The ancestors that Christ are painted around the windows.

The fresco that The Last referee on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel was commissioned by Pope Clement VII, and Michelangelo labored on the job from 1536–1541. The work is situated on the altar wall surface of the Sistine Chapel, i beg your pardon is not a classic placement because that the subject. Typically, critical judgement scenes were put on the exit wall of churches as a method to remind the viewer that eternal punishments together they left worship. The Last judgment is a relenten of the second coming of Christ and the apocalypse; wherein the souls of mankind rise and also are assigned come their miscellaneous fates, as judged by Christ, surrounded by the Saints. In comparison to the previously figures Michelangelo painted on the ceiling, the numbers in The critical Judgement are greatly muscled and also are in much much more artificial poses, demonstrating how this occupational is in the Mannerist style.

In this work Michelangelo has rejected the orderly depiction of the last judgement as established by Medieval legacy in donate of a swirling scene of chaos together each heart is judged. As soon as the painting was revealed that was heavily criticized because that its consist of of classical imagery as well as for the amount of nude figures in somewhat suggestive poses. The ill reception the the job-related received might be tied to the respond to Reformation and also the the supervisory board of Trent, which bring about a choice for an ext conservative spiritual art there is no of classic references. Back a number of figures were made more modest v the addition of drapery, the alters were not made until after the death of Michelangelo, demonstrating the respect and also admiration the was afforded to him throughout his lifetime.

The last Judgement: The fresco the The Last referee on the altar wall surface of the Sistine Chapel was commissioned by Pope Clement VII. Michelangelo functioned on the job from 1534–1541.

Architecture: St. Peter’s Basilica

Finally, although other architects to be involved, Michelangelo is given credit for designing St. Peter’s Basilica. Michelangelo’s chief contribution was the usage of a symmetrical setup of a Greek Cross type and an outside masonry of huge proportions, through every edge filled in through a stairwell or tiny vestry. The result is the a constant wall surface ar that is urgent or broken at various angles, doing not have the ideal angles that commonly define readjust of direction at the corners that a building. This exterior is surrounded by a huge order of Corinthian pilasters all set at slightly various angles to each other, in maintaining with the ever-changing angles of the wall’s surface. Above them the substantial cornice ripples in a continuous band, giving the appearance of keeping the whole structure in a state the compression.

St. Peter’s Basillica: Michelangelo design the dome that St. Peter’s Basilica top top or prior to 1564, return it was unfinished when he died.


Mannerist artists began to disapprove the harmony and also ideal proportions the the Renaissance in donate of irrational settings, man-made colors, unclear subject matters, and also elongated forms.

Learning Objectives

Describe the Mannerist style, just how it differs from the Renaissance, and also reasons why that emerged.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsMannerism came after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque.The artists who came a generation after ~ Raphael and Michelangelo had actually a dilemma. They might not surpass the good works that had already been produced by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo. This is when we begin to see Mannerism emerge.Jacopo da Pontormo (1494–1557) represents the transition from the Renaissance to the Mannerist style.Key TermsMannerism: layout of arts in Europe native c. 1520–1600. Mannerism come after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque. Not every artist painting throughout this duration is taken into consideration a Mannerist artist.

Mannerism is the name offered to a format of art in Europe native c. 1520–1600. Mannerism come after the High Renaissance and before the Baroque. Not every artist painting throughout this period is thought about a Mannerist artist, however, and there is much debate among scholars end whether Mannerism have to be taken into consideration a separate motion from the High Renaissance, or a stylistic phase of the High Renaissance. Mannerism will be treated together a different art movement here as over there are plenty of differences in between the High Renaissance and the Mannerist styles.


What renders a job-related of arts Mannerist? very first we must understand the ideals and also goals of the Renaissance. Throughout the Renaissance artists to be engaging with classical antiquity in a brand-new way. In addition, they occurred theories on perspective, and also in all methods strived to develop works of art that to be perfect, harmonious, and showed appropriate depictions the the herbal world. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo are taken into consideration the artists who reached the greatest accomplishments in art during the Renaissance.

The Renaissance stressed harmony and beauty and also no one could create more beautiful functions than the good three artists provided above. The artists who came a generation after had a dilemma; they could not surpass the great works the had already been created by da Vinci, Raphael, and also Michelangelo. This is when we start to view Mannerism emerge. Younger artists trying to execute something new and different began to refuse harmony and also ideal proportions in donate of irrational settings, fabricated colors, unclear subject matters, and elongated forms.

Jacopo da Pontormo

Jacopo da Pontormo (1494–1557) to represent the shift from the Renaissance to the Mannerist style. Take it for instance his Deposition native the Cross, an altarpiece the was painted for a chapel in the Church the Santa Felicita, Florence. The numbers of Mary and also Jesus show up to be a direct reference come Michelangelo’s Pieta. Back the occupational is dubbed a “Deposition,” there is no cross. Scholars also refer to this job-related as the “Entombment” yet there is no tomb. This lack of clarity top top subject matter is a hallmark of Mannerist painting. In addition, the setup is irrational, virtually as if it is no in this world, and the colors are much from naturalistic. This work can not have actually been produced by a Renaissance artist. The Mannerist activity stresses various goals and also this occupational of arts by Pontormo demonstrates this new, and different style.

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Pontormo, Deposition native the Cross, 1525-1528, Church the Santa Felicita, Florence: This work-related of art by Pontormo displayed the hallmarks the the Mannerist style: unclear topic matter, irrational setting, and artificial colors.