Jodi Clarke, LPC/MHSP is a licensed skilled counselor and psychological health and wellness company provider with over 20 years of experience in the field.

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Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist that operates a exclusive exercise in Pennsylvania." data-inline-tooltip="true">Daniel B. Block, MD

Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist that operates a personal practice in Pennsylvania.

Do you tend to feel gloomy, store to yourself, hide your emovements from others, and tend to watch the glass as fifty percent empty? You could be a form D personality.

Personality types were initially figured out by cardiologists in the 1950"s to assist determine patients that can be at better risk for heart condition. As study has actually ongoing to construct over the years, more personality kinds have actually been figured out and also labeled via specific letters to reexisting a discovered set of patterned personality traits.

You have actually most likely heard of kind A personality prior to, which entails traits such as competitiveness, aggressiveness, and high levels of ambition. People with type A personality are discovered to be at greater risk of experiencing cardiac wellness complications such as high blood press and heart disease.

When we comment on personality types prefer this we are not referring to an establiburned psychological health and wellness diagnosis, but a pattern of traits that have the right to assist researchers learn that can be at danger for cardiac condition and various other physical health complications.


Illustration by JR Bee, Verywell

Type D Personality Traits

Type D is a certain personality type initially labeled in the 1990s by Belgian psychologist and also researcher Johan Denollet. The letter "D" in this form of personality represents distressed and is referring to a set of personality traits that involve points like:

Feelings of worrySadnessIrritabilityPessimistic outlookNegative self-talkAvoidance of social situationsLack of self-confidenceFear of rejectionAppearing gloomyHopelessness

People with a Type D personality are more most likely to be lonely and anxious. Even though many type of of us deserve to feel a variety of these things at times, people with form D personality suffer these traits even more generally than the average perkid and more repetitively over time.

A personality type is not attempting to sell a mental health diagnosis, just a noteworthy pattern of habits that deserve to be researched as concerned physical health and wellness, especially cardiac and also immune health.

Comparing the Personality Types

It deserve to be beneficial to recognize even more around each of the 4 personality types to see just how the Type D personality compares.

Type A: Ambitious, hard-driving, and also go-gaining. People through this personality type tfinish to be perfectionists that put themselves under an excellent deal of anxiety.Type B: Low-stress and anxiety and also basic going. People via this kind of personality tfinish to be lhelp ago and adaptable.Type C: Highly conscientious. Like Type A"s, they are perfectionists who desire whatever to be simply so - but they also struggle to reveal emovements, both positive and also negative.Type D: Distressed. People with this personality form are often worried, sad, and also low in confidence.

How to Know If You're Type D

To much better understand also form D personality and how it correlates with physical health and wellness dangers, researchers have actually occurred a typical assessment designed to help determine those with kind D personality traits described as the Type D Scale-14 (DS14). This tool helps researchers meacertain for social inhibition and negative affectivity.

People with Type D personality have high levels of both negative affectivity and social inhibition. Social inhibition suggests that civilization tend to shy ameans from social interactions, perhaps as a result of are afraid of rejection or judgment, and that they tfinish to absence confidence in social instances. Negative affectivity suggests that world experience negatively valued emotions such as sadness, worry, and irritcapacity. Due to the fact that world through a Type D personality tfinish to hide their negative emotions, they may not necessarily feel or act depressed or anxious. People that know them may be surprised to learn that they are struggling.

They also exhibit high levels of behavior inhibition, interpretation they withdraw from new instances they are not familiar via. Since of these tendencies, they might be even more likely to build stress and anxiety disorders.

If you are curious if you can have actually form D personality traits, it deserve to be advantageous to think about concerns such as the following:

Do I tfinish to bottle up my emotions and not present them to others?Do I find it hard to satisfy new people?Do I come to be quickly overwhelmed in sticky situations?Do I tend to avoid social interactions when possible?Do I regularly talk negatively to myself?Do I often uncover myself feeling sad or irritable?Do I tfinish to be in a negative mood a lot of the time?Do I concern a lot?

Emotional Challenges

Sharing emotions with people cshed to us have the right to feel vulnerable to many of us. The concept of sharing emotions through others can feel downideal terrifying for someone through type D personality traits.

Type D individuals frequently are afraid rejection and judgment from others and, in an effort to protect themselves from those experiences, will often job-related diligently to hide their emovements. In addition to the are afraid of judgment and rejection, people through kind D traits may uncover it tough to trust others, particularly in times of emotional distress and anxiety.

As you can imagine, this initiative to keep eactivities had have the right to be a challenge. People via type D personality traits frequently suffer negative emovements and are regularly left feeling as if tbelow is no one to turn to. In enhancement to their fears of rejection and judgment, type D individuals might additionally fear burdening world via their emotional distress and anxiety, specifically those closest to them.

Physical Health

Type D people work-related hard to stifle, cover, and also hide their most difficult eactivities, frequently causing wellness complications and placing them at danger for points like coronary artery illness (CAD), compromised immune feature, and also chronic inflammation.

Research continues to prosper in these locations to aid physicians and also other healing practitioners determine patient hazard and areas of necessary care. Working hard to suppush or hide their eactivities can cause an extrasimple amount of distress to the form D person"s body, such as enhancing heart price, leading to blood pressure to rise, and an increase in blood sugar released.

Early research by Denollet argued simply just how influential form D traits could be on physical wellness. In surveying over 300 patients in a cardiac rehabilitation regimen, they discovered that about 27% of kind D patients had actually passed away within the complying with 10 years, as compared to just 6% in the group not identified with type D personality traits. Additionally, among almost 900 patients who underwent coronary artery surgery, type D patients were over four times more likely to have actually a heart assault or die within nine months of their surgical treatment.


Because form D personalities struggle through boosted issue, sadness, and deserve to additionally find it challenging to connect in social interactivity, relationships deserve to be an area of battle for those through kind D traits.

Social inhibition limits the person"s capacity to connect with others at any kind of level of relationships, from those in even more casual duties, such as co-employees or acquaintances, to friendships and also intimate relationships.

When form D individuals find that they deserve to connect through someone, it might be hard to grow and also maintain the relationship as their negative impact proceeds to present up in the relationship dynamic. They deserve to be viewed as pessimistic, gloomy, and perhaps unapproachable to partners, friends, and family members.

School and Career

People via kind D personality traits deserve to endure obstacles at institution or job-related. With a propensity to be even more socially inhibited, it can be difficult for kind D individuals to develop and also preserve relations via others.

Feel even more stressed in their workplaceExperience even more job burnoutFeel less personally accomplishedMiss even more days from work

This tendency to protect against or stand up to social interactions can make it difficult to uncover a sense of belonging and mutual interests via others, and cause type D individuals increased ditension when confronted with team tasks or tasks that need them to collaboprice through others. Since of their even more inhibited nature, kind D individuals may be regarded as disinvolved or perceived as unwilling to get involved.

Knowing that kind D individuals are regularly tested with enduring unpleasant emotions and battle through negative self-talk, it is understandable that they can additionally battle through setting and achieving personal goals.

Whether at work-related or at college, anxiety over assignments or tasks deserve to cause form D individuals to experience extreme issue. In this emotional state, they may tend to forecast negative outcomes or can quickly uncover factors why something will not job-related out well.

Steps to Take If You Are Type D

Although figured out as those struggling through too much dianxiety, kind D people can learn techniques to much better assist them live a full and also enjoyable life. Not just may their emotional experiences and also outlook adjust by taking some of these steps, but their physical wellness has actually a possibility of enhancing too.

Learning brand-new methods to handle stress, to increase hope and optimism, and to get over social inhibition deserve to be essential factors in helping form D individuals live their ideal stays.

Helpful procedures that a kind D personality can make to improve their top quality of life involve the complying with areas:

Hopeful Self-Talk: Identifying and also complex old patterns of negative self-talk have the right to assist people start to understand also how this has actually impacted their decision making, habits, and also relationships. Taking time to find and also incorpoprice honest, positive self-talk can be a game-changer for kind D individuals.Healthy Coping Skills: Incorporating brand-new, healthy habits to help cope via moments of ditension can be advantageous. Since many kind of kind D individuals have come to be so excellent at bottling up and hiding their emotions, discovering to end up being more conscious of their emotional trends have the right to aid them to better navigate ditension and also cope in healthier means.Exercise: Incorporating continual exercise right into our day-to-day routines deserve to be valuable on a range of levels. For those through type D personality traits, it have the right to allow them to better manage their eactivities and also find healthy coping actions. Physical exercise helps to regulate tension hormones and can sell us an possibility to relieve stress.Self-Efficacy: People with kind D personality traits deserve to discover it hard to feel hopeful and also empowered to affect change in their very own resides. Disextending and also celebrating little victories can assist civilization to increase their sense of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is a idea that refers to exactly how knowledgeable we believe we are and the level to which we view ourselves as able to successfully complete work, for instance. Celebrating victories, no matter exactly how little, and taking inventory of our toughness have the right to be of help to rise our sense of self-efficacy.Relationship Building: Due to the fact that of their inhibition and fears roughly rejection and judgment, it is understandable that form D people have a hard time structure and keeping close relationships. Learning how to trust, interact successfully, and also be a healthy partner deserve to be crucial in boosting the high quality of life in this location. Counseling deserve to assist people learn just how to properly navigate problem in relationships and also market world guidance on just how to construct and preserve cshed, healthy relationships.

How to Help a Type D

You may care for someone through type D personality traits, which deserve to present difficulties of their very own. Knowing that form D people tend to endure distress and anxiety, yet have learned to bottle it up and hide it well, it have the right to be challenging for those approximately them to recognize as soon as they could use help. The type D individual in your own life may have actually end up being so great at hiding or stifling their negative emotions that you could discover it surpincreasing that they battle at all.

So, just how deserve to you help? Tbelow are a few means that loved ones have the right to offer assistance and encouragement for those via form D personality traits.

The the majority of vital step you have the right to take is to reach out to the perchild. You don"t need to know exactly what to say, it is simply necessary that you make the initiative to reach out and affix.


People with type D personality traits can feel lonely in their distress and anxiety and come to be doubtful to desire to let anyone into their emotional endure. Since they uncover it tough to reach out, it can be helpful for loved ones to check in through them eexceptionally now and then to see just how they are doing. Even if the kind D individual finds it hard to talk about their eactivities or let you into their suffer, the reality that you took time to reach out is noticed by them and appreciated.

Reach Out

If your kind D perchild has a tendency to withdraw and this feeling of isolation is impacting their physical wellness, take an possibility to invite them to the gym via you, to go for a walk, or interact in a fun and healthy activity. Anything that enables them the chance to relocate and attach via others deserve to be of good advantage for the kind D individual.

Show Interemainder and also Support

Offering an emotionally safe room for them to talk is useful to a form D personality. Fear of rejection and judgment can lead them to not want to reach out and also deserve to make it hard for them to trust or be fragile through people, also those who are close friends and household. Showing interemainder in their emotional wellness and also giving reassurance that you are obtainable when they are all set is essential for helping the type D individual learn exactly how to reach out to others once in dianxiety, quite than bottling their emotions and feeling isolated.

A Word From Verywell

People through a Type D personality are even more likely to suffer high levels of dianxiety and also stress and anxiety, which may put them at a greater threat of negative wellness outcomes. If you have actually this kind of personality, talk to a therapist around developing a arrangement that will assist you control your stress and anxiety and also build healthy coping mechanisms.

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