Imagine walking right into your neighborhood grocery store and seeing two virtually identical cartons of milk right next to each other. The only discernible difference—and that barely discernible—is that there’s a small tag top top one carton saying the milk is marketed by a third-party seller. Oh, and also it can have rat poop in it.

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This scenario isn’t every that far from what’s happening in e-commerce retailers’ massive, hard-to-police industries of third-party sellers.

The rise of counterfeit goods and also other phony commodities sold on the Internet has been swift—and it has largely gone unnoticed by countless shoppers. Yet make no mistake: The problem is extensive. Most people don’t realize this, however the bulk of listings top top Amazon aren’t in reality for items marketed by Amazon—they’re operation by third-party sellers. And even despite many, countless third-party sellers room upstanding merchants, an awful lot of them room peddling fakes.

A significant Wall Street Journal examination recently revealed that Amazon has noted “thousands that banned, unsafe, or mislabeled products,” native dangerous children’s assets to electronics with fake certifications. The Verge reported that even Amazon’s listings because that its own line of items are “getting hijacked through impostor sellers.” CNBC found that Amazon has shipped expired foods—including infant formula—to customers, pointing come an i can not qualify to monitor something as an easy as one expiration date. Because of the proliferation that counterfeits and what Birkenstock describes as Amazon’s unwillingness to help it fight them, Birkenstock won’t offer on Amazon anymore. Nike announced that it is additionally pulling the end of Amazon. “Many consumers room … unaware of the far-reaching probabilities they confront of being defrauded through counterfeiters when they shop ~ above e-commerce platforms,” reads a January 2020 department of Homeland security report (PDF) recommending actions that would force e-retailers to take counterfeits even more seriously. “These probabilities room unacceptably high and appear to be rising.”

This is other we treatment a lot about here at Wirecutter. ~ all, we’re in the service of recommending the best products to our readers. We want to make sure that if girlfriend act on our advice, friend actually obtain the top-quality product we’re recommending and not part third-rate knockoff.

Over numerous months of research, we were may be to purchase items with Amazon Prime the were either shown counterfeits, lookalikes unsafe because that use, or otherwise misrepresented. Us talked with numerous brands around the climb of fakery and their efforts to combat it. And we make the efforts to recognize the new landscape the counterfeits and how to navigate it, so that you deserve to as well.

Amazon, too, is plainly aware the the problem and is taking plenty of measures to combat counterfeits ~ above its site. However critics say its efforts are not practically enough. (Read much more about Amazon’s initiatives to struggle counterfeits here.)

In the 2010s, the spread of misinformation and also “fake news” meant learning to consume articles and also news programs v skepticism. In this decade, as e-commerce web page increasingly become our go-to for almost every acquisition we make, the proliferation of fake products—and fake reviews—will similarly train a generation of consumers to be skeptical and careful around what castle buy.

Welcome come the era that fake products.

Burned by fake gloves


The actual 'Ove' Glove and also the fake 'Ove' gloves look nearly identical. Photo: Ganda Suthivarakom

“Sometimes, removing pans from the oven can be too hot to handle—ouch!” warns the cheesy voiceover ~ above late-night commercials because that the ‘Ove’ Glove. The heat-proof glove, made of meta-aramid fibers and cotton, v strips the silicone that deserve to withstand temps the 540 degrees Fahrenheit, do its surname in the at an early stage 2010s through funny, easy-to-mock ads. However the ‘Ove’ Glove had actually plenty going because that it—an endorsement by customer Reports, the great Housekeeping Seal, and on and also on. It to be a highly distinctive product, and the agency took measures to defend itself with a design patent (D567,454) and also a trademark.

Despite those efforts, the small, san Francisco–based agency has had actually to compete with counterfeit sellers on its own product pages top top Amazon and also other sites.

“JOSEPH ENTERPRISES inc (Joseph Ent): is the only legal manufacturer and also distributor of the trademarked ‘Ove’ Glove,” the product web page states clearly. However, ns was able to purchase a fake ‘Ove’ Glove v Amazon prime from a seller named Winifred Connor, that has since been removed from the store.

Michael Hirsch, vice president of Joseph Enterprises, told united state that the procedure of acquiring fraudulent third-party sellers removed deserve to take months and also involves painstakingly buying doubt fakes and also documenting the difficulty for Amazon. Despite the precise rules that the algorithm space not public knowledge, counterfeiters likely “win the buy box” (or come to be the seller the gets to accomplish an order) through posting the shortest prices, so alternate sellers acquire to meet orders because that customers rather of Joseph Enterprises. Us bought ours fake because that $9.86 ~ above Amazon, around $5 much less than the price Joseph enterprise set. Us were also able come find evident fakes marketing for $2 apiece in bulk on Chinese business site Alibaba.

Because there room rarely results for marketing fakes, past a seller disappearing native a site, the seller deserve to just reestablish its existence to proceed to move its inventory. “Once lock off, lock come ago under a various brand and also name,” Hirsch said. The laments not simply the lose of customers but the danger posed through fakes. “Customers have actually literally been shed by utilizing an worse product,” he said. Provided this and also other difficulties the agency has encountered, Hirsch stated he recommends the customers purchase the ‘Ove’ glove from Target’s site or at brick-and-mortar retailers.

We got to out come Amazon about the fake ‘Ove’ Gloves and the problematic seller. The seller was gotten rid of from the site quickly after us purchased the fake glove.

Fakes for kids

Wirecutter proposal the authentic children Fly for sure CARES aircraft Safety harness for human being who desire to certain smaller kids on airplane without having actually to lug a heavy auto seat. The patented and also trademarked exploit is made by AmSafe, an aviation manufacturer the specializes in structure restraint systems for commercial aircraft. Together a federal Aviation administration representative said us, “The AmSafe product called CARES (Child Aviation Restraint System) was certified as an ELOS—Equivalent Level of Safety—to a car seat. That is the just harness type child safety restraint that the FAA has actually certified (PDF).”

But ns was able to acquisition a copycat “Toddler plane Travel safety Harness” through a brand that fraudulently declared it was “FAA approved.” The materials were inferior to those the the real CARES harness, with cheap plastic buckles, weak stitching, and no lock to keep the adjustable shoulder straps in place.

AmSafe told united state that it has put hundreds of thousands of dollars into experimentation the security of its product, running much more than 100 sledge’s tests with crash test dummies come simulate flight conditions. Knockoff manufacturers bland nylon straps together to produce a $20 product that might look like the kids Fly for sure CARES harness, but “it’s every in the sewing and also the webbing,” stated Charley Fussner, company unit manager of seatbelts at AmSafe. Although there are at this time six sellers because that the cares harness, the only authorized seller top top Amazon is River nest Trading, Fussner said.

We reached out come Amazon and the FAA around this knockoff. Shortly after i contacted the FAA, the product was eliminated from Amazon. However, an additional harness listing has popped increase under a different name, utilizing the very same imagery (minus the FAA label), and with a price that $50 instead of $20.


This Amazon listing for a counterfeit CARES airplane restraint harness falsely declared that the copycat was FAA approved. It was selling for around $50 less than one authentic cares harness and looks practically identical, at the very least in the listing.

As The Washington Post and also CNN have actually recently reported, kids car seats and strollers have likewise been copied and knocked turn off by counterfeiters. Amazon relies on third-party sellers to self-certify that a product complies with all safety laws. Yet as Inc. Has actually reported, Amazon no reviewing safety and security documentation prior to a product gets posted to the website by third-party sellers, permitting unsafe automobile seats to on slide through.

Jon Sumroy is the inventor the the Mifold travel booster, a patented, Indiegogo-born vehicle seat the folds up smaller than one iPad for simple transport native one automobile to another. He claims he started to view copycats virtually as soon as he released his company: “They don’t copy precisely the design, however what they have actually done is copy the ide of the product.”

We were able to acquisition the YXTDZ portable and also foldable child booster seat, a cheap plastic seat similar to the Mifold, however with no one of the reinforced metal or safety labels forced by legislation for children’s car booster seats. The listing has due to the fact that been removed. The fake is worrying—it looks around as sturdy as a flimsy toy you could buy in ~ a swap meet. We got to out to the seller to request security information however did not acquire a reply.


The YXTDZ is a cheap copy that a automobile booster seat called the Mifold, but without the safety and security labeling or documentation the it meets commonwealth standards.

Copies favor the YXTDZ lack the clear labeling and also safety test outcomes of the compliant Mifold (Sumroy to compare his development to cheap knockoffs in this video). The physical distinctions between the assets are clear, but the invisible differences are far much more worrisome. And because Sumroy is faced with a knockoff rather than a counterfeit, Amazon’s anti-counterfeiting tools can’t be supplied to combat the problem.

We reached out to Amazon about this product. The YXTDZ storefront still exists, but it is no longer offering the automobile booster chair on Amazon.

The third-party seller system: a boon to counterfeiters

Counterfeits have always been one issue. Yet the Internet has actually exacerbated the problem.

In the brick-and-mortar days, a counterfeit product could have a more tough time obtaining onto the shelves the a legit business, since it would certainly be in a retailer’s ideal interest come vet the validity and also safety of products the retailer could be responsible for selling to a customer. Service owners to be gatekeepers, and counterfeits were greatly relegated to back alleys, figuratively and literally.

Things are various online. Smaller sellers who peddle counterfeits, specifically pseudonymous third-party sellers top top e-commerce communication with vast reach and also trust, now have accessibility to millions of customers castle never had actually when they were lurking in downtown alleys and flea markets. “The rise of e-commerce has actually led to the climb in counterfeits,” claims Kim Gianopoulos, director of a government Accountability Office (GAO) team the investigated counterfeits because that sale online.

If girlfriend shop top top Amazon, you’ve most likely bought things from third-party sellers without learning it. Ns have. Third-party sellers now overcome Amazon sales, bookkeeping for 54 percent the units marketed on Amazon in the 2nd quarter that 2019, follow to Statista. “Third-party sellers are kicking our first-party butt,” Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos told shareholder in a 2019 letter, call the increase—from 3 percent of sales in 2000 to over half today—“remarkable.” yearly third-party sales have grown come a whopping $160 billion.

You’ve more than likely bought points from third-party sellers without understanding it. I have.

Making things an especially tricky is the reality that a single e-commerce product page may include offerings native the manufacturer as well as from countless third-party sellers, part honest and also some not so honest. On one e-commerce site, it’s together though those back-alley and swap-meet sellers have obtained to put their wares within the store, top top the exact same shelf together the real goods. And also product placement depends on one algorithm that can push the cheapest version to the former of the shelf.

This would certainly be fine if all third-party sellers to be committed to honest sales of yes, really goods. And it’s necessary to note again that many third-party sellers room upstanding. However with so numerous sellers competing for clicks, one method to victory the customer is by supplying the shortest price, and it’s often much easier to carry the price under if you’re marketing a counterfeit.

At Wirecutter, we’ve viewed this problem pop up with fake tweezers and also bogus umbrellas. Counterfeiters have actually infiltrated categories together niche together bird feeders and cleaning devices. Girlfriend don’t also have to manufacture a fake to market them—just perform a search for Kylie Cosmetics or Hydroflask on Alibaba to view barely hidden counterfeits that can be bought in mass for a portion of the street price.


These space clear fakes because that sale ~ above Alibaba. The lip-gloss box doesn’t to speak Kylie, however everything else is an exact match to she company’s packaging.

These room clear fakes because that sale ~ above Alibaba. The Hydro Flask logo shown here is utilizing the wrong font.

Angry customers that confuse fakes because that the real thing can have a devastating effect on publicly perception that a brand. Because that instance, the maker of Brush Hero, a hose attachment for cleaning, experienced the listing because that his product get undercut through sellers providing a much lower price because that poor-quality counterfeits, Inc. Reported. In November, The wall surface Street journal reported the Brush Hero’s service could not withstand the result of counterfeits and would be laying off many of its us staff.

“What’s sad as well as consumers being ripped off is that moral sellers, human being that job-related their butts off, room being ripped off too,” claims Rob Gross, co-founder and COO the Fakespot, a website that analyzes the veracity that customer evaluate on e-commerce product pages. “They’re being ripped off by the competitors, and they’re being ripped off by Amazon, since Amazon’s no doing sufficient to protect real, honest sellers.”

Complaints around fakes room on the rise

The sale of counterfeit items now represents 3.3 percent of human being trade, follow to the organization for economic Co-operation and also Development, an international team with 36 member countries (including the US) that provides evaluation and policy recommendations. The worth of seized items in the united state (if they’d to be real) was nearly $1.4 billion in 2018, according to united state Customs and also Border Protection. Worldwide, there have actually been instances of fake chargers leading to electrocution deaths (PDF), phony cosmetics making a buyer’s challenge swell up, and pet supplements sickening dogs. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and also other regulation enforcement agencies have actually reported finding carcinogens, bacteria, and waste native both humans and also rodents in counterfeit cosmetics. Fake chargers and also cheaply-made lithium ion batteries can damage your electronics and even capture fire.

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A 2018 GAO report on counterfeits recounts the of 47 products company employees purchased from third-party sellers with an excellent ratings, 20 were fake, as evidenced by the intellectual property legal rights holders. One hundred percent that Nike waiting Jordans were real. One hundred percent that Urban degeneration eye inside wall makeup tubes to be fake.