How They Work
A alteration of the extractions formerly debated in this chapter is to perform a katifund.orgical reaction in the separatory funnel in order to change the polarity and also therefore partitioning of a compound in the aqueous and also organic layers. A widespread method is to perdevelop an acid-base reaction, which can transform some compounds from neutral to ionic develops (or vice versa).
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For example, imagine that a mixture of benzoic acid and also cyclohexane is dissolved in an organic solvent prefer ethyl acetate in a separatory funnel. To separate the components, a water wash may be attempted to remove benzoic acid, however benzoic acid is not particularly water-soluble as a result of its nonpolar aromatic ring, and just tiny quantities would be extracted right into the aqueous layer (Figure 4.54a).
Separation of a mixture of benzoic acid and also cyclohexane is but feasible using a wash with a base such as (ceNaOH). Due to its acidic nature, benzoic acid have the right to undergo a reactivity via (ceNaOH) as follows, leading to the carboxylate salt sodium benzoate.
<eginarrayccccccccc cePhCO_2H left( aq ight) & + & ceNaOH left( aq ight) & ightarrowhead & ceH_2O left( l ight) & + & cePhCO_2Na left( aq ight) & & left( extor cePhCO_2^- ceNa^+ ight) \ extBenzoic acid & & & & & & extSodium benzoate & & endarray>
The solubility properties of carboxylic acids are significantly various than their matching carboxylate salts. Sodium salicylate is around 350 times more soluble in water than salicylic acid because of its ionic character (Figure 4.55), and it is fairly insoluble in organic solvents such as diethyl ether.
The residual carboxylic acid can be removed from the wanted ester product using an acid-base extractivity in a separatory funnel. A wash with sodium bicarbonate converts benzoic acid into its more water-soluble sodium benzoate develop, extracting it into the aqueous layer (Figure 4.57). Additionally, the sodium bicarbonate neutralizes the catalytic acid in this reaction.
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Sodium bicarbonate is preferable to (ceNaOH) in this process, as it is a much weaker base; washing via (ceNaOH) could reason hydrolysis of the ester product.
Mixtures of Acids and Bases
As has been questioned formerly, the acid-base properties of compounds can be used to selectively extract specific compounds from mixtures. This strategy deserve to be extfinished to various other examples